These are some images from the early 1960s from the North Vietnamese magazine Viet Nam.

The above pictures seem to represent the happy and idyllic traditional lifestyle of minority peoples. Or maybe they are happy because they are now living under Socialism?

The pictures below, meanwhile, demonstrate how the minorities are participating in the modern nation, while still maintaining their cultural distinctness.

And finally, here are some representations in art. The first is a painting called “The Teacher in a Mountain Village” by Le Huy Hoa.