A few days ago a reader suggested that we take a look at another map, this one being of the Mekong Delta and Cambodia. That map is also included in the collection of maps known as the Hồng Đức bản đồ. It is in a collection of maps called the Giáp ngọ niên bình nam dồ (Maps of the Pacified South from the Giáp Ngọ Year), and is attributed by some to Nguyễn Hoàng and the year 1594.


I don’t think that is accurate. These maps should be from a century later. In any case, I’m just going to present the information from the maps, and hopefully, as before, people will have comments and insights to make.

I still can’t get the Vietnamese diacritics to show up in Photoshop (even when I cut and paste), so I’ve just put numbers on the maps and will put the information below the maps.


1. where Quảng meets Chiêm Thành / Cam Tinh lodge and patrol

2. Man Lang Estuary

3. 100 Quảng troops

4. Kingdom of Chiêm Thành – Phối Niên King

5. citadel of stone, very large construction

6. the march from Chiêm Thành to Cao Miên takes 25 days

7. La Xa Cove

8. Man Lý Estuary

9. every year in the fifth lunar month groups of fish face the pagoda

10. Phố Đài Estuary – deep

11. Phố Đài market

12. a lot of people live here

13. Cạn Estuary – shallow


1. This river originates in the Inner Land’s Yunnan Province, reaches the Tây Lự/Xilu Kingdom, passes through Hưng Hóa and Ninh Biên Châu, crosses the Kingdom of Vạn Tượng [i.e., Lan Xang], and then reaches here where it is the Không River [i.e., the Mekong].

2. Chiêm Thành – Cao Miên border

3. Nặc Nộn Citadel

4. Quảng troops, 3 chích (三隻)

5. Ba Vinh Town (People from the Middle Kingdom live here) [the version of this map that was published in Saigon has “People from the Middle Kingdom’s Fujian (Province) live here]

6. temple

7. Mỹ Thu Estuary – deep and wide

8. Vua Lửa [“Fire King”]

9. On the occasion of every full moon, emissaries from Cao Miên present tribute to Quảng people.

10. This river is deep and large. Cao Miên emissaries to Quảng use barges that carry elephants.

11. This river passes through the Kingdom of Vạn Tượng.

12-13. big forests to the sea

14. Fields from here on / Đồng Nai region, Hà Tôm community – here at last we got 20 people [??]

15. Nước Lộn Estuary – big

16. Tắc Kế Estuary – shallow

17. Xích Lam Estuary – shallow

18. Pha Ly Estuary – shallow


1. Dried Sea (Hạc hải 涸海) [not sure if this is supposed to be a proper name or a description, but it must refer to the Tonle Sap]

2. Kingdom of Cao Miên (People from the Middle Kingdom’s Guangdong [Province] live here)

3. Đế Thiên Đế Thích Palace [i.e., Angkor] / sacrificial altar to the Three Realms and the Four Palaces [tam giới tứ phủ 三界四府]

4. Nặc Thu Citadel

5. temple

6. Thành Cồn xứ [“the area of Cồn Citadel”]

7. Cao Miên Estuary – deep and wide