In the 1920s and 1930s there was an explosion of print publications across Southeast Asia. These sources are invaluable for understanding many topics.

While early examinations of these writings sought to understand the rise of nationalism, current scholarship has moved on to such topics as fashion and gender, topics which are still related to nationalism, but which allow us to think about how people in Southeast Asian societies “refashioned” their sense of selves in ever more complex ways.

Chie Ikeya, Refiguring Women, Colonialism and Modernity in Burma (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2011).

Patrick Jory, Thailand’s Politics of Politeness: Qualities of a Gentleman and the Making of ‘Thai Manners,’” South East Asia Research Vol. 23, No. 3 (2015): 357-375.

Michael D. Pante MD, “A Collision of Masculinities: Men, Modernity and Urban Transportation in American-Colonial Manila,” Asian Studies Review Vol. 38, No. 2: 253–273.

Ben Tran, “I Speak in the Third Person: Women and Language in Colonial Vietnam,” Positions Vol. 21, No. 3 (2013): 579-605.

Tom Hoogervorst, “Manliness in Sino-Malay Publications in the Netherlands Indies,” South East Asia Research Vol. 24, No. 2 (2016): 283-307.

Martina Thucnhi Nguyen, “Wearing Modernity: Lemur Nguyễn Cát Tường, Fashion, and the ‘Origins’ of the Vietnamese National Costume,” Journal of Vietnamese Studies Vol. 11, No. 1 (2016): 76-128.

Chie Ikeya, “The Modern Burmese Woman and the Politics of Fashion in Colonial Burma,” The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 67, No. 4 (2008): 1277-1308.

Su Lin Lewis, “Cosmopolitanism and the Modern Girl: A Cross-Cultural Discourse in 1930s Penang,” Modern Asian Studies Vol. 43, No. 6 (2009): 1385-1419.

Mina Roces, “Gender, Nation and the Politics of Dress in Twentieth-Century Philippines,” Gender and History Vol. 17, No. 2 (2005): 354-377.